Recent PubMed Literature Review

This is a quick review of the latest 200 articles on PubMed, pulling out interesting items. Aug 14,2021

  • ” Clinical trials have shown some evidence to suggest the beneficial effects of probiotics in depressive and neurodevelopmental disorders. Limited studies have discussed this subject; however, the role of the intestinal flora in the pathophysiology and treatment of mental disorders appears to be a promising field of research.” [2021]
    • Food selectivity is associated with more severe autism symptoms in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder This selectivity may reinforce the microbiome dysfunction
    • “. With accumulating evidence showing how the microorganisms modulate neural activities, more and more research is focusing on the role of the gut microbiota in mitigating ASD symptoms and the underlying mechanisms. In this review, we describe the intricate and crucial pathways via which the gut microbiota communicates with the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, and summarize the specific pathways that mediate the crosstalk of the gut microbiota to the brain in ASD.”[2021]
    • Understanding Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Methodological Shift in Neuroimaging Research From Investigating Group Differences to Individual Differences [2021]
    • “provides a functional analysis of cell bioenergetics and metabolic changes in a group of Bulgarian patients with ASD. It reveals physiological abnormalities that do not allow mitochondria to adapt and meet the increased energetic requirements of the cell. ” [2021] – difference could be partially attributed to microbiome shifts
    • “Metallomic profiles of ASD patients cover, besides essential elements such as cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, selenium, also toxic metals burden of: aluminum, arsenic, mercury, lead, beryllium, nickel, cadmium. Performed studies indicate that children with ASD present a reduced ability of eliminating toxic metals, which leads to these metals’ accumulation and aggravation of autistic symptoms.” [2021] – some bacteria are known to reduce toxic metals, see [studies]
    • ” The results revealed that the possible underlying pathophysiology of ASD were alterations of amino acids, reactive oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, and microbiota-gut-brain axis. The potential common pathways shared by animal and human studies related to the improvement of ASD symptoms after pharmacological interventions were mammalian-microbial co-metabolite, purine metabolism, and fatty acid oxidation” [2021] – most of these items are significantly influence by the microbiome.
  • Early Motor Skills in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Are Marked by Less Frequent Hand and Knees Crawling
    • ” In comparison to healthy peers, children with ASD showed impairments in executive function and muscle strength. Moreover, higher muscle strength was independently associated with better executive function, but only in ASD patients. This is a first indication that the promotion of muscle strength, for example, by regular exercise, could contribute to a reduction of ASD-related executive dysfunction.” [2021]
    • Motor challenges in ASD are pervasive, clinically meaningful, and highly underrecognized, with up to 87% of the autistic population affected but only a small percentage receiving motor-focused clinical care… Findings suggest that motor difficulties in ASD are quantifiable and treatable,  ” [2021]
    • “Delays in developmental milestones, particularly in gross motor skills, are frequent and may be among the earliest indicators of differentially affected developmental processes in specific genetically defined conditions associated with ASD, as compared with those with clinical diagnoses of idiopathic ASD. ” [2021]
  • “Both paternal and maternal autoimmune diseases were associated with increased likelihood of ADHD in children. However, only paternal autoimmune diseases were related to offspring ASD risk.” [2021]
    • “In this national cohort, preterm and early term birth were associated with increased risk of ASD in boys and girls. ” [2021]
    • “Results indicate that maternal pre-pregnancy severe obesity increases risk of ASD and developmental disorders  in children and suggest high gestational-age-adjusted gestational weight gain is a risk factor for ASD in male children.” [2021]
    • “The findings showed that labor induction is associated with increased risk of ASD among children. Therefore, the findings support that clinical use of oxytocin during labor has a significant negative impact on the long-term mental health of children.” [2021]
    • “Children with predominant white matter injury, related to insults in the late second or early third trimester, had the highest prevalence of autism (40%). Children who had sustained a middle cerebral artery infarction had the highest prevalence of ADHD (62%).” [2021]
    • “Neonatal jaundice, depends on its severity, seems to be one of the possible biological factors associated with subsequent development of and the severity of ASD. ” [2021]
  • “Results indicated that youth with ASD had greater Reactivity severity and also greater positive change in Reactivity than non-ASD peers. Furthermore, differences between youth with and without ASD in the relationship between Reactivity and Dysphoria suggest a distinct profile of emotion dysregulation in ASD” [2021]
  • “The results demonstrate a positive association between comprehensive treatment models and better prognosis in childhood, especially regarding symptoms, and language. However, most extant research involves small, non-randomized studies, preventing definitive conclusions from being drawn. Clearly, the outcomes of children with ASD are still far from normal, especially with respect to adaptive functioning, and the four mediating variables pertaining to treatment elements can affect their gains, including approach, implementer, intensity, and total treatment hours.” [2021]
  • ” A review of the literature on whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) as a therapy significantly affects the symptoms of ASD does not confirm its effectiveness.” [2021]
  • ” the adults with ASD were approximately 2.6 times more likely to be diagnosed with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias compared to the general population.” [2021]
  • Autistic people are more likely to be transgender, which means having a gender identity different to one’s sex assigned at birth. [2021]
  • Decreased risk for substance use disorders in individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder [2021]
  • ” This study suggested that acupuncture could effectively treat ASD” [2021]
  • “Our results further support a hypothesized causal link with ASD that is specific to postnatal exposures to traffic-related pollution.” [2021]

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