Microbiome Analysis of a 11 y.o. boy with Autism

Most of the analysis is done in the video. I captured a few highlights here

Some notes from the mother

  • Diagnosed at age 18 months
    • Given antibiotics at 3 months
  • Improved with removing gluten and dairy •Positive lab tests for Lyme Above reference levels for Coxsackie and EBV and HHV6.
  • Focus issues and lot/severe OCDs and tantrums and lot of rigidity and not conversational
  • No social skills and gets head pain all of a sudden which might be PANS will last for few minutes and will be fine again.
  • Failure to thrive (low weight), lot of Gut issues, started having Acid Reflux issues

(Chronic) Lyme, Coxsackie, EBV, HHV6 are extremely common with people with Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). These people also show some neurological symptoms like with autism: emotional fragility, loss of executive decision making, slowness of thought, sound intolerance (which can be perceived as not wishing to socialize). I view ME/CFS as generally being a microbiome dysfunction.

The positive for infections may be due to the microbiome being sufficiently jacked by the microbiome dysfunction that latent low level infections are not longer being well controlled.

Ken’s initial impressions

Video (90 Minutes)

Steps covered

  • Review “to go” solutions
  • Supplements and vitamins that may be deficient
  • Review end products produced by bacteria
  • Review Modules (processes) produced by bacteria
  • Review Enzymes produced by bacteria
  • Identify any probiotics that could theoretically help
  • Review bacteria with unusual shifts (may have no idea of role/function)
  • Creating diet modification suggestions

Findings

  1. Bifidobacterium : Too High 78% of the microbiome, I have seen similar in other children with autism (up to 85%).
  2. Bacteroides vulgatus : Too High
  3. Ruminococcus gnavus : Too High
  4. Veillonella dispar : Too High
  5. Dorea longicatena : Too High
  6. Streptococcus sanguinis : Too High
  7. Erysipelatoclostridium ramosum : Too High
  8. Bifidobacterium bifidum : Too High
  9. Streptococcus marimammalium : Too High
  10. Streptococcus dentapri : Too High
  11. Streptococcus danieliae : Too High

We have agreement with published studies on the microbiome of autism for:

  1. Bifidobacterium : Too High
  2. Bacteroides vulgatus : Too High
  3. Ruminococcus gnavus : Too High

Suggestions

Take the following

Take none of the following

To avoid that agrees with mother’s observation (child improved)

Bottom Line

Use this video with the site to walk thru the same process. If you have a TV (which can stream YouTube) and a laptop, put the video on the TV and step thru on your laptop.

DNA aspect of Autism

This is a current state of the art reference post. My focus is on the microbiome and DNA comes into that scope. Both the microbiome and dna are inherited to various extents. Over generations the microbiome adapts to the host’s DNA – a complex balancing act between metabolites, enzymes and other chemicals. A microbiome dysfunction is conceptually easier to fix than DNA (at least at the moment). For example, variation of dopaminergic pathway genes impact both dopamine levels and potentially the microbiome[2020]

I will just give one citation for each SNP (Dna part or gene). Ideally, someone has or will create a site where a child’s DNA (from 23and me etc) could be checked for which mutations are involved.

  • truncating:
  • recessive deleterious variants:
  • synaptic plasticity, 

There are more being added every year (For current studies). A child with autism will not have all of these, but rather some combination that pushes matters over a threshold. Each combination will likely have different labs and symptoms (and different “best” treatment).

Using the microbiome approach, my hope is that we can see the net effect on the microbiome and thus have some hope for compensating.

A view from inside ASD

As I have mentioned on line, I am a high functioning ASD person. I did not start learning to speak until I has nine (9). “Erling turn off the radio” came out as “Uga turn off the olelio”. I grew up and have always lived in the Seattle WA/Vancouver BC area. People often have assumed that I was an immigrant with a significant accent or that it was acquired from my parents at home.

Wrong, my mother grew up in Calgary, Alberta knowing only English. When people met my father, they often assumed that he had a very very mild scottish accent. Needless to say, people were confused.

During my childhood (before Autism was on most family physician’s radar), I still recall very very vivid meeting of 3 kids who I suspect had more severe autism (or parents who could not cope). Two were on a home visit from a mental asylum. The last one was my age and still had not started to learn to talk (I had)….. “There but by the right parents and family physician (grace of god), could go I”. After meeting these people, the next 10-20 years were terror — because I realized how fragile a life/line that I was on.

I found my autism-compatible niche, mathematics (and later computer science). This is not surprising…

To be honest, I was good at mathematics but I wished a broader life-experience. I left high school with an Arts and Science program. I ended up being only language credits short from having both a B.Sc. and a B.A. (learning languages has always been difficult for me). With a few of my B.A. profs, I had issues because I walked down logical paths and did not pick up that those were politically incorrect to those profs.

Back to Childhood and ASD

I have been messaged on social media by parents with autistic children. To put it mildly, I feel for them (from having been inside that pit). In retrospection AND now realizing what I was dealing with, I like to make some suggestions of paths for parents to consider.

  • Puzzle solving and mathematics. This can be a challenge if you are not inclined. Thinking games are a viable start, you may need to learn:
  • The games above SHOULD NOT BE PLAYED as a computer game, but face to face with a person. You want the social interaction for your child (all be it light interaction — perhaps just light enough).
    • I was playing all of the above by 14 and still have warm positive feeling playing them against friends
  • A second area is music. My mother learnt the violin and purchased her own during the dirty 1930’s by working as a seamstress. I still have the violin. I still remember discovering it in a closet and taking to it. During my teenage years with angst, playing it was how I dealt with it. Forget talking things out with friends…. ASD remember! But I could express myself in music.
    • Be careful, it may not be any instrument. I did piano too. During the emotional teen years, it was the violin that quieted my soul. The resonance of the string instrument (actually, a viola was a strong match for me) that harmonized with my soul.
      • Be careful of non-specific “music therapy”
    • Autistic traits, resting-state connectivity, and absolute pitch in professional musicians: shared and distinct neural features [2019]
      “These results show that absolute pitch possessors score significantly higher than individuals without absolute pitch in the autism-spectrum quotient.” [2012]
      I should state that I do NOT have perfect pitch, if anything, the opposite. If your child have perfect pitch, then a career in music may be an option (especially the type where pitch and not volume is important 😉 )
  • Another area is dance. Organized structured movement. I remember doing square dancing in elementary school as a very pleasing experience. In later years, I did English Country Dances (Playford), Scandinavian Dances, and was active in Historic Dance Performance groups. As with music, it is not any dance form —
    • You want it structured/scripted
    • You want it to include light social interaction
    • You do not want competition (why? Simple — competition bring out social behaviors in normals that will do more harm than good)
    • I would not advise the following dance forms:
      • Jazz – lack of structure and social interaction
      • Competitive Ballroom
      • Ballet
    • Pre-screen the teacher and the class. If the teacher’s goal is to make the students ready for competition…. try elsewhere.
  • Read aloud to the child poetry with a strong rhyming and structure. Repeat and encourage the memorization of the poem
    • I was always attracted to those
    • In time, the child will likely learn it, perhaps initially, with only clapping along with the words.
    • Today, one of my favorite podcasts is The History of English Podcast. I still love reading aloud poems or books with strong pattern.
    • In high school, a friend and I would be doing required laps in Physical Education, he would recite the Canterbury Tales from memory during this required activity. There was a strong attraction to the sound of the tales

Bottom Line

Our family physician (kept him until I was in the 30’s when he retired) advice to my parents were simple, “Let him be, he will find his own path”. “Be hesitancy supportive, being too supportive will backfire/overwhelm him”.

My parents (father especially, my mother was much more willful — but fortunately issues with my older normal brother distracted her from me!) gave me a beginning and then a string of encouraging supportive teachers at High School. At university, supportive profs were rare – uni is high competitive for positions.

In elementary school I was usually a C- (or worst) student. There was one “pedantic teacher”, Ms. Schooley, in High School who really helped me structured school work and resulted in graduating with a B average. Her pedantic “now take a ruler and….” in Grade 10 was made fun of by many students…. but it really helped me. At Uni, I was spitting distance of having a 1st class average — not bad, considering that I was working 40 hrs per week and going to class! Then on to a M.Sc. and accepted for a Ph.D. but did not start (work offer tempted me away). My career is on LinkedIn – not bad for ASD. The key was to flow with my strength and avoid my weakness (and ignore social pressure of what I should be doing)

I hope this, my view from the inside, will help you and your child.

Detailed Videos on Autism Microbiome Analysis

A reader gave me permission to use data on her 3 y.o. boy with autism for a series of videos. This include a bunch of lab results: Hair Analysis, Organic Acid Test (OATS), Toxic Non-Metal Chemical Profile, Blood Work, Metabolomix.

I did the videos in three parts:

  • Review the lab reports to identify issues (abnormal values) reported by them
  • Use these issues to trace back to the bacteria species causing many of these abnormal values. From this we create a hand-picked list of bacteria of interest that are specific to this person.
The intent is to identify the dominant players

The last video looks at the different ways of getting suggestions. The key is “Do no harm” and starting with commonality across different ways.

Approximately 1 hour
57 minutes
46 minutes

Best Biome Test for Autism

Traditionally I have advocated  Thryve Inside or Biome Sight as the best bang for the buck. For a parent dealing with autism or ASD, my recommendation is:

Why? The reason is simple — there can be multiple contributing factors:

The second factor is the ability to upload to MicrobiomePrescription which gives access to machine learning and artificial intelligence of the microbiome as a whole.

One of the key factors that I seen on many microbiome providers is “the best of intentions, and the worst of executions”. Actually, not the worst of execution — rather simplistic analysis, typically created from product manager concepts and executed by software developers. There is no heavy-duty statistical/ machine learning/ artificial intelligence resource involved. The why’s is simple… those types are in very high demand by Amazon, Facebook etc with starting salaries exceeding the CEO salary of microbiome provider. Bottom line, take their conclusions with a big grain of salt – often their “gold” with be pyrite or iron sulfide (FeS2)  AKA Fool’s Gold.

New Features – Autism Children

This is an exploration post on three autism microbiome samples (all were processed on Thryve, two had their FASTQ files processed on BiomeSight.com for a second interpretation of the bacteria present). I will follow the analysis pattern that I used for myself in this post, Microbiome Outliers.

The three samples are:

  • A – Autism
  • B – Autism
  • C – Diagnosed as ASD, main characteristic is speech delay (been there, done that personally)
  • D – Diagnosed as ASD, then PANS/PANDA and possible Mast Cell issues. Unfortunately – this was done by BiomeSight and not Thryve, so not exactly comparable (See The taxonomy nightmare before Christmas…)

Remember this is experimental, possibly 10 years ahead of conventional medicine – and will likely be subject to evolution. It is the best that I am aware of (and gladly be informed of better!). It will give three ‘samples’ to compare other autism microbiome against.

Where we get this information on http://microbiomeprescription.com/

Core Supplements Suggested

There appears to be no shared pattern here. I usually look at items below 5% or above 95% (Outliers). What is an outlier for one child is not an outlier for the other child.

A-Thryve
B-Thryve
C – ASD/Speech
D – ASD/PANDA/Mast Cell

For D, the low DAO production could present appearing to be a Mast Cell issue (That is not an actual issue with Mast Cells, instead low DAO)

End Product Outliers

Again, we find no shared patterns.

A- Thryve
B – Thryve
C – ASD / Speech
D – ASD/PANDA/Mast Cell

We see 3 children share low Indole levels. Note:  The amino acid tryptophan is an indole derivative and the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin.[2]

KEGG Module Outliers

To put this simply, Modules are a complex of processes.

A – Thryve
B- Thryve
NONE for C – ASD/Speech
None for D either -ASD/PANDA/Mast Cell

Kegg Enzyme Outliers

This looks at enzymes produce by the bacteria. There are many, many enzymes – far more than is commonly known.

Here we have a reversal between A and B. Above, B shows few abnormalities and A shows many abnormalities. With the enzymes, B jumps ahead of A by a long distance! B has 453 items, A just 51.

There were no items that both had.

A – Thryve
B – Thryve: First Page
B – Thryve: Page 2
B – Thryve: Page 3
B – Thryve: Page 4
B – Thryve: Page 5
B – Thryve: Page 6
B – Thryve: Page 7
B – Thryve: Page 8
C – ASD/Speech
D – ASD / PANDA / Mast Cells

It is interesting to note that both children with ASD have very short lists here.

Bottom Line

Until I hit the Enzymes, I was coming to the impression that A has a jacked microbiome and B did not. That was suddenly changed when I looked at the Enzymes, B had a massive number of different shifts.

C and, who has an ASD diagnosis with speech issues being the main issue (not behavior issues etc). We see just 2,5 (versus 53 versus 451) enzyme outliers using Thryve data. This hints at enzyme production dysfunction by the microbiome as an area of interest for more severe autism.

Note: Getting suggestions from enzyme outliers or KEGG Module are features on my backlog. It will be complex to implement well.

If you look at my own latest results, Microbiome Outliers, the only thing that I had was “Rare” which could be ascribed to noise (incompleteness) of the lab results.

I did look at their results with BiomeSight processing too. They are roughly similar (we have a lot less samples – less than 10% of samples, so those results are more volatile/unreliable to compare against our sample population – Thryve is the better choice of lab solely because we have more samples uploaded. Please process their FASTQ files thru biomesight.com to build our sample population ).

Post coming soon a three way family comparison – Parent, ASD child, non ASD child. Drilling down across all data. It will be a long post.

Organic Acid Tests (OATS) and Autism #4

This is a continuing series of blogs looking at OATS results and autism. The goal is to filter out items that are relevant to autism. The series is not intended to do a full explanation of the OATS test or a single person’s result. The OATS test is not autism specific but general health (often IBS/FM/CFS focuses).

Remember that our knowledge is constantly changing (unfortunately most MDs knowledge of the literature is stale).

Panel A

  • 3-Hydroxybutyric
    • “Furthermore, levels of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and melatonin were significantly lower [in ASD] ” [2020] [2018] In this case not.
  • Acetoacetic – nothing explicit [2018][2019]
  • 4-Hydroxybutyric (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) – high levels may be associated to specific DNA. [2019] [2016] [2009]
  • Ethylmalonic
    • ” ethylmalonic acid (P = 0.043) were significantly elevated in individuals with ASD.” [2020] – in this case not
  • Methylsuccinic – nothing found
  • Adipic – again, this child is normal range
    • ” the increase in adipic acid concentration was significantly and indirectly correlated with the severity of the deficit in socialization and communication skills in children with an ASD” [2016]
    • ” Overall, no increase in the concentration of adipic acid in children with ASDs compared to TD children, however when considering vitamin B supplementation in ASD there were significantly increased level of urinary adipic acid in children with an ASD not taking vitamin B supplementation compared to supplemented children or to TD children. ” [2016]
    • B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children [2011] B vitamins lowers
    • Significant differences were found between the autistic children and the control group in organic acids: 2-oxoglutaric, isocitric, citric, 4-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, hippuric, adipic, suberic (all with p<0.05). [2011]
  • Suberic
    • “No significant difference were observed in suberic acid. ” [2016]
  • Sebacic – nothing found

Panel B

Suggested reading Supplements and Autism and Factors associated with Autism
  • Vitamin B12
    • “For example, levels of vitamins B1, B6, B12, A and D are often reported to be low in ASD children. ” [2020]
  • Vitamin B6
    • “For example, levels of vitamins B1, B6, B12, A and D are often reported to be low in ASD children. ” [2020]
  • Vitamin B5
    • “Based on semi-blinded assessment, the treatment group, compared to the non-treatment group, had significantly greater improvement in autism symptoms and developmental age. The treatment group had significantly greater increases in EPA, DHA, carnitine, and vitamins A, B2, B5, B6, B12, folic acid, and Coenzyme Q10. ” [2018]
  • Vitamin B2
    • “Based on semi-blinded assessment, the treatment group, compared to the non-treatment group, had significantly greater improvement in autism symptoms and developmental age. The treatment group had significantly greater increases in EPA, DHA, carnitine, and vitamins A, B2, B5, B6, B12, folic acid, and Coenzyme Q10. ” [2018]
  • Vitamin C
  • CoQ 10
    • “Based on semi-blinded assessment, the treatment group, compared to the non-treatment group, had significantly greater improvement in autism symptoms and developmental age. The treatment group had significantly greater increases in EPA, DHA, carnitine, and vitamins A, B2, B5, B6, B12, folic acid, and Coenzyme Q10. ” [2018]
  • NAC
    • “We concluded that N-acetylcysteine is safe and tolerable, reduces hyperactivity and irritability and enhances social awareness in children with autism spectrum disorder. ” [2020]
  • Biotin
    • “Low levels of biotin, plasma glutathione, RBC SAM, plasma uridine, plasma ATP, RBC NADH, RBC NADPH, plasma sulfate (free and total), and plasma tryptophan; also high levels of oxidative stress markers and plasma glutamate.” [2011]

Organic Acid Tests (OATS) and Autism – #3

This is a continuing series of blogs looking at OATS results and autism. The goal is to filter out items that are relevant to autism. The series is not intended to do a full explanation of the OATS test. The OATS test is not autism specific but general health (often IBS/FM/CFS focuses).

Remember that our knowledge is constantly changing (unfortunately most MDs knowledge of the literature is stale). In going thru the literature, remember what is reported is the result of a group and may not apply to a specific child with autism. Each child has difference symptoms and thus different microbiome dysfunction.

The purpose of the literature review is to identify items that are recognized as autism associated and to know what to follow up on with your medical professional.

This article, A Metabolomics Approach to Screening for Autism Risk in the Children’s Autism Metabolome Project [2020] is worth a read.

Panel A

Glyceric

Nothing found

Glycolic

A low value is seen here and in disagreement with the literature

  •  Other metabolites increased are 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, glycolic acid and glycine, cis-aconitic acid; phenylalanine, tyrosine, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid [2014]

Oxalate

A high value is seen here and in agreement with the literature

  • Children with ASD demonstrated 3-fold greater plasma oxalate levels compared with reference and 2.5-fold greater urinary oxalate concentrations [2012]
  • Low oxalate diets have been tried with no published results [2020]

Lactic

Appears to be connected to anxiety. High levels are associated with brain fog and loss of executive function with other conditions. Child is high.

Pyruvic

Child is upward trending. The literature refers to the ratio being high, and in this case, the ratio appears to high. An appropriate goal would be to reduce lactic acid.

Panel B

Succinic

We see low values, the literature reveal that this may be connected to some SNPs in some.

Fumaric

Skipping – not abnormal and nothing clear in the literature.

Malic

This person is high. Nothing found in the literature.

2-Oxoglutaric

This person is slightly low.

This lead to a single study from [2011]: “Significant differences were found between the autistic children and the control group in organic acids: 2-oxoglutaric, isocitric, citric, 4-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, hippuric, adipic, suberic (all with p<0.05).”

There was also “The ASD group had higher levels of phenylactic acid but decreased amounts of aconitic acid, phosphoric acid, 3-oxoglutaric acid, and carboxycitric acid compared to TD children. ” [2019]

Aconitic

This person is low.

This was also found low in the last study “decreased amounts of aconitic acid” [2019] and contrary results in ” Interactions among diet, intestinal flora and genes may explain such findings… Other metabolites increased are 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, glycolic acid and glycine, cis-aconitic acid; phenylalanine, tyrosine, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid are all involved in the tyrosine pathway leading to neurotransmitter cathecolamine.” [2014]

Citric

This person is slightly low.

“Three of 7 patients demonstrated abnormalities in citric acid metabolites, bacterial metabolism, and fatty acid oxidation markers. ” [2015] This implies abnormalities may only occur in a subset.

3-Methylglutaric

This person is slightly elevated.

” Metabolomic analysis of urinary organic acids revealed that three metabolites, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (P = 0.008), 3-methyglutaconic acid (P = 0.018), and ethylmalonic acid (P = 0.043) were significantly elevated in individuals with ASD.” [2020]

3-Hydroxyglutaric

Nothing found in the literature. Person is in normal range.

3-Methylglutaconic

Nothing found in the literature. Person is in normal range.

Bottom Line

We have done another section of the OATS report. Correcting by diet or drugs some of these shifts is another level of analysis; one that too-often there is little information on.

One known example: Pyruvic-Lactate ratio can be addressed by reducing the amount of lactic acid (i.e. no Lactobacillus probiotics, reducing food that produce lactic acid – milk, yogurt). It may also require 16s microbiome tests to determine which lactate producing bacteria are present (list here)

Organic Acids Tests (OATS) and Autism #2

This is a continuing series of blogs looking at OATS results and autism. The goal is to filter out items that are relevant to autism. The series is not intended to do a full explanation of the OATS test. The OATS test is not autism specific but general health (often IBS/FM/CFS focuses).

Remember that our knowledge is constantly changing (unfortunately most MDs knowledge of the literature is stale).

Panel A

Glutathione

In this test panel, we see that this it is well below the normal range.

the functional properties (such as galactose metabolism, glycosyltransferase activity, and glutathione metabolism) displayed significant differences between the ASD and HC groups. The current study provides evidence for the relationship between gut microbiota and ASD, with the findings suggesting that gut microbiota could contribute to symptomology.

Gut microbiota changes in patients with autism spectrum disorders [2020]
  • The role of glutathione redox imbalance in autism spectrum disorder: A review [2020] “, the existing data provide a strong background on the role of the glutathione system in ASD pathogenesis. Future research is necessary to investigate the role of glutathione redox signaling in ASD, which could potentially also lead to promising therapeutics.”
  • “N-acetylcysteine, which can be converted to glutathione” [2020] In prior post, NAC was found to help a subset.
  • Does infectious fever relieve autistic behavior by releasing glutamine from skeletal muscles as provisional fuel? [2013]
    • ” If glutamine released by fever rarely aggravates autistic behavior, why would supplemental glutamine?” i.e. direct supplementation of glutamine is not suggested.

Methylation

In this test panel, we see that this it is well above the normal range. There is a lot of literature dealing with methylation, so I have selected two recent studies dealing with the DNA aspect.

Ammonia

This person is low in Ammonia Excess. The literature suggests level may depend on subset:

  • Dysregulated amino acid metabolism, high ammonia and oxidative stress were prevalent among autistic children and should be considered in autism management [2020]
  •  Twenty-eight (38%) cases were positive for H. pylori antigen in their stool with significant higher serum ammonia and lower adenosine deaminase than in H. pylori-negative autistic children.  [2019]
  • “when concentrations of fecal acetic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and caproic acids were measured, all were significantly higher in children with ASD compared with controls except for caproic acid. The concentration of fecal ammonia was also significantly greater in ASD participants than controls “[2012]

Aspartame, Salicylates and 2-Hydroxyhippuric returned no results.

Panel B

Summary of searches on PubMed for Autism with:

  • 2-Hydroxyisovaleric – nothing
  • 2-Oxoisovaleric – nothing
  • 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric – nothing
  • 2-Hydroxyisocaproic – nothing
  • 2-Oxoisocaproic – nothing
  • 2-Oxo-4-methiolbutyric (Nothing found on this chemical on PubMed!!)
  • Mandelic – nothing
  • Phenyllactic and Phenylpyruvic – one research article on rats
    • “potentially explaining the origin of trans-indolylacryloylglycine, a postulated marker for autism.” [2012]
    • A low level could suggest “differences in the gut microbially‐mediated metabolism of phenylalanine”
  • Homogentisic – nothing
  • 4-Hydroxyphenyllactic – nothing
  • N-Acetylaspartic – nothing
  • Malonic – high levels seen at birth has increased risk of autism [2017]
  • 4-Hydroxybutyric – nothing

Phosphoric has some 43 search hits for phosphorus. The most significant items are below

  • “There was a significant correlation of levels of phosphorus and sulfur in the children with ASD” [2020] Higher –> Autism
  • Several articles cited the importance of phosphorus for Vitamin D

Section Summary

None of the lab’s measurement here are relevant to autism. They may be relevant to other health issue.

Bottom Line

We see that DNA is involved with the possibility of altering its behavior with supplements and/or microbiome alteration.

Organic Acids Tests (OATS) and Autism #1

The last of the test results forwarded by a reader was the Great Plains Laboratory Organic Acid Test. The two earlier tests results with comments are:

There are a lot of tables in this report and I will do just 1-2 in each blog post to keep information flow manageable.

This test is interesting because it lists some of the bacteria associated associated various markers.

This page lists OVERGROWTH — there is only one that is high (overgrowth). Items being low should likely be ignored.

The one interesting thing is that most of the lows are associated to Aspergillus. This agrees with a study that I cited earlier:

“Saccharomyces and Aspergillus showed significant differences between ASD (59.07%) and Control (40.36%), indicating that they may be involved in the abnormal gut fungal community structure of ASD. When analyzed at the species level, a decreased abundance in Aspergillus versicolor was observed while Saccharomyces cerevisiae was increased in children with ASD relative to controls. ” [2020]

 Aspergillus oryzae is the only Aspergillus that I know that is available as a probiotic (Strong Wakamoto W)

 2-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid is shown as high above. The literature mentions 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid is common with Autism

Nutritional Markers

The item that stands out is thiamin and there is no literature connecting it to autism beyond lower intake by diet in some locations.

  • Autism spectrum disorder group failed to meet dietary recommendations for thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, or calcium. [2017]

From this article Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity [2011] we read:

  • No statistical difference for Thiamin
  • No statistical difference for Riboflavin
  • No statistical difference for Niacin
  • No statistical difference for Pantothenic Acid, but average was lower
  • No statistical difference for Vitamin C

I should add one word of warning, because the levels were similar, it does no exclude supplementation as being beneficial in some cases. The reason is that often they are processed into other chemicals (depending on available surplus and the bacteria present).

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is more interesting because the marker indicate it was high. For a subset of ASD patients (high irritability), supplementation helps:

CoQ 10 is shown as low above. As with NAC, supplementation appears to benefit a subset.

Bottom Line

My working model is that symptoms are strongly associated to the metabolites (chemicals/vitamins) produced/processed by the microbiome (bacteria in digestive system). For CoQ10 and NAC, we know the bacteria that are likely impacted, and that information is linked to here (CoQ10 , NAC).

This means that it is not a one-size fit all approach to autism, but very individual – either based on symptoms OR on the microbiome. I am biased towards using the microbiome (16s reports from Biome Sight [“MICRO” as discount code], followed by Thryve Inside)