Autoimmune Encephalitis with Autism, COVID, CFS/ME etc

A reader asked “Autoimmune Encephalitis in kids and therapeutic Treatment agents ūüôŹ“. I am aware that the reader deals with a child with autism, so my focus will be in that direction.

Autoimmune encephalitis is a collection of related conditions in which the body’s immune system attacks the brain, causing inflammation. The immune system produces substances called antibodies that mistakenly attack brain cells.

Brain Institute

Those with CFS/ME knows that ME stands for myalgic encephalomyelitis¬†which leads to the question — what is the difference?

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) accounts for around 10% of all known cases of encephalitis.  ADEM usually affects children and begins after a childhood rash (exanthema), other viral infections or immunizations. There is usually a latent period of days to two to three weeks before symptoms emerge. The illness has been poorly understood and a variety of terminologies used to describe it, these including post-viral, post-infectious or para-infectious.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) | The Encephalitis Society

The key words are poorly understood and there is no definitive test to tell them apart. There was a proposal in 2016, A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis – autism is not mentioned in this proposal or its appendix. We do see from this article that there are multiple sub-categories.

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis ( [2016]

This article lists the following infection associated: HSV, CMV, VZV, JE, Enterovirus, HHV6, HHV7, Neuroborreliosis (Lyme disease), WNV (West Nile), Syphilis, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor , Tuberculosis, , Listeria, Streptococcus, Toxoplasmosis. Bold items are items associated to CFS/ME. To these, we need to add COVID.

Autism Specific

“Diagnosing autoimmune encephalitis sooner can increase the effectiveness of curative treatments-such as immune therapy or immune modulatory therapy-that may prevent the long-term consequence of being misdiagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Glutamate therapy primarily normalizes glutamate neurotransmission and can be a new add-on intervention alongside antipsychotics for treating autoimmune autism.”

Autism Associated With Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis: Glutamate-Related Therapy [2019]

Drilling down in this direction we find:

There are a lot more, but the reader’s concern was treatment.

Treatment Options

We have what really amounts to be a symptom ” “, which can be associated with many causes — for example: infections. For those the treatment should be specific for the infection.

For some of the conditions cited above, we have really just one set of suggestions which may be worth considering (after consulting with your medical professional). This is specific for autism, but may be applicable to ME/CFS and Long Haul Covid.

Glutamate supplementation or blockers. See this article Glutamate – The Autism Community in Action (TACA) ( Note that Urine Amino Analysis: (i.e. OATS) and blood tests are deemed unreliable. An old school approach is to insure a stable regular diet and then try supplementation that increases glutamate for 1-2 weeks and then try supplementation that reduces glutamate for 1-2 weeks [see above page]. This will likely provide insight to the nature of the imbalance of glutamate.

Supplements to reduce IL-17

The interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines plays crucial roles in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Its intended role is against pathogens — but if it is stuck on then it becomes harmful. This can sometime happen with mis-identification of chemical signals. For details on the members of this subset, see Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.

It appears to be a significant player for Autism, Interleukin-17 in Chronic Inflammatory Neurological Diseases [2020]

A reader has asked about items that are known to reduce it. The following comes from a search of PubMed

  • There are a variety of prescription IL-17 inhibitors (ixekizumab, secukinumab, bimekizumab, netakimab, brodalumab) covered in this review [2021]
  • An engineered Lactobacillus salivarius¬† is described here [2017]
  • Lactobacillus plantarum¬†(LP) IS-10506 “The IL-4 and IL-17 levels were significantly lower in the probiotic than the placebo group.” [2020]
  • Luteolin decreases levels [2021] (available as a supplement)
  • ”¬†The combination of L. acidophilus, vitamin B, and curcumin effectively downregulated Th17 cells and the related cytokine IL-17, thereby maintained the Treg population,¬†” [2020]
  • Lactobacillus plantarum “pre-treatment with food-borne Lpb. plantarum significantly reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17F and IL-23 levels in inflamed NCM460 cells.” [2020]
  • Lactobacillus casei¬†Shirota (Yakult, the beverage) ”¬†LcS significantly reduced plasma monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and, on subgroup analysis, plasma interleukin-1ő≤ (alcoholic cirrhosis), interleukin-17a and macrophage inflammatory protein-1ő≤ (non-alcoholic cirrhosis), compared with placebo.” [2020]
  • The Role of Flavonoids in Inhibiting Th17 Responses in Inflammatory Arthritis [2018] provide a lot of details (including some unusual herbs and spices). Items more commonly available include:
    • Apples – ¬†Procyanidins B1, B2, and C1
    • Grape Seed Extract — Proanthocyanidins
    • Licorice — (Glycyrrhiza glabra) I can strongly attest that it does wonders for inflammation (We use spezzatina )
    • Blueberry, Raspberry, black rice, and black soybean – Anthocyanins
  • Berberine “attenuating the Th17 response triggered by the B cell-activating factor” [2018]
  • Astragalus “Downregulating Interleukin-17 Expression¬†via¬†Wnt Pathway'[2020]
  • Curcumin (Turmeric) – “Curcumin mediates attenuation of pro-inflammatory interferon ő≥ and interleukin 17 cytokine responses in psoriatic disease” [2020]

More items (with references) is listed here, this was a quick summary – that is a deeper review.

To avoid:

  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) ATCC 53103 “upregulated the expression of IL-17” [2020]
  • “We confirm that food intake increases IL-17 expression in the mouse ileum and human blood. e. Thus, IL-17 is a gut-produced factor that is controlled by diet and modulates food intake by acting in the hypothalamus. Our findings provide the first evidence of a cytokine that is acutely regulated by food intake and plays a role in the regulation of eating.” [2020]

Bottom Line

The last citation points to the microbiome as a very significant factor for the levels of IL-17. At present, we do not know which bacteria play a role (many bacteria cannot be cultured, which limits our knowledge of what they do).

Modelling Candidate Bacteria

We have a list of items that reduces IL-17. We also find many of these items in our database. Thus if we look at the bacteria that are reduced by these food, we may be able to generate a candidate list of bacteria of concern.

The result is this list of significant bacteria

  • Clostridiaceae (family)
  • Enterobacteriaceae (family)
  • Staphylococcaceae (family)
  • Streptococcaceae (family)
  • Clostridium (genus)
  • Enterobacter (genus)
  • Enterococcus (genus)
  • Escherichia (genus)
  • Kluyvera (genus)
  • Pseudomonas (genus)
  • Staphylococcus (genus)
  • Streptococcus (genus)
  • Enterococcus faecalis (species)
  • Escherichia coli (species)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa (species)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa group (species)
  • Staphylococcus aureus (species)
  • Streptococcus mutans (species)

The strongest hint is for Staphylococcus aureus (species) which leads to this article:

So we have a full cycle… items shown to reduce IL-17 also are items that reduce a list of bacteria. Checking those bacteria, we find that they are associated with high IL-17 levels.

Consequence: In asking for suggestions – you may wish to go to hand-pick bacteria and select any of those listed above.

I have a longer list by genus below that are also suspect (from strongest hint to weaker).

  1. Escherichia (genus)
  2. Pseudomonas (genus)
  3. Staphylococcus (genus)
  4. Kluyvera (genus)
  5. Streptococcus (genus)
  6. Enterobacter (genus)
  7. Clostridium (genus)
  8. Enterococcus (genus)
  9. Citrobacter (genus)
  10. Dorea (genus)
  11. Eubacterium (genus)
  12. Raoultella (genus)
  13. Shigella (genus)
  14. Bacillus (genus)
  15. Fenollaria (genus)
  16. Intestinimonas (genus)
  17. Caloramator (genus)
  18. Oscillibacter (genus)
  19. Gracilibacter (genus)
  20. Coprobacter (genus)
  21. Slackia (genus)
  22. Helicobacter (genus)
  23. Coprococcus (genus)
  24. Cronobacter (genus)
  25. Prevotella (genus)
  26. Anaerobutyricum (genus)
  27. Parasporobacterium (genus)
  28. Anaerobium (genus)
  29. Anaerotignum (genus)
  30. Fusicatenibacter (genus)
  31. Hespellia (genus)
  32. Faecalicatena (genus)
  33. Tyzzerella (genus)

Fecal Matter Transplant in Autism

I have written posts on this for ME/CFS, listed below — but a reader asked me specific for Autism. On Pubmed there was a number of studies on Autism and FMT, hence this article.

Autism Specific

Together, these findings suggest that MTT is safe and well-tolerated in children with ASD ages 7‚Äď16¬†years. MTT led to significant improvements in both GI- and ASD-related symptoms, and the improvements were sustained at least 8¬†weeks after treatment. Coincident with these clinical improvements, both microbiota and phage from the donors appear to have engrafted, at least partially, in the recipients. This shifted gut microbiota of children with ASD toward that of neurotypical children is consistent with the hypothesis that gut microbiota may be at least partially responsible for GI and ASD symptoms.¬†

Microbiota transfer therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study.[2017]

Bottom Line

The largest studies are from China with 73 patients. One of the typical problem with small studies is bias in the selection of candidates as well as reporting averages. With the China study we get 61.6% improvement; this agrees with “most improvements” (i.e. over 50%) from other studies.

The selection of the donor is critical. For example, if the child is low in Akkermansia muciniphila, the donor should be high (i.e. above the median at least, ideally at the 75%ile or more). A 16s microbiome profile should be done on the child and candidate samples before proceeding. “Bottled off-the shelf FMTs” will likely have poorer success rates.

This is not a cure, it is an improvement. The greatest benefit may occur in children with gastrointestinal symptoms (speculation ).

Microbiome Analysis of a 11 y.o. boy with Autism

Most of the analysis is done in the video. I captured a few highlights here

Some notes from the mother

  • Diagnosed at age 18 months
    • Given antibiotics at 3 months
  • Improved with removing gluten and dairy ‚ÄĘPositive lab tests for Lyme Above reference levels for Coxsackie and EBV and HHV6.
  • Focus issues and lot/severe OCDs and tantrums and lot of rigidity and not conversational
  • No social skills and gets head pain all of a sudden which might be PANS will last for few minutes and will be fine again.
  • Failure to thrive (low weight), lot of Gut issues, started having Acid Reflux issues

(Chronic) Lyme, Coxsackie, EBV, HHV6 are extremely common with people with Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). These people also show some neurological symptoms like with autism: emotional fragility, loss of executive decision making, slowness of thought, sound intolerance (which can be perceived as not wishing to socialize). I view ME/CFS as generally being a microbiome dysfunction.

The positive for infections may be due to the microbiome being sufficiently jacked by the microbiome dysfunction that latent low level infections are not longer being well controlled.

Ken’s initial impressions

Video (90 Minutes)

Steps covered

  • Review ‚Äúto go‚ÄĚ solutions
  • Supplements and vitamins that may be deficient
  • Review end products produced by bacteria
  • Review Modules (processes) produced by bacteria
  • Review Enzymes produced by bacteria
  • Identify any probiotics that could theoretically help
  • Review bacteria with unusual shifts (may have no idea of role/function)
  • Creating diet modification suggestions


  1. Bifidobacterium : Too High 78% of the microbiome, I have seen similar in other children with autism (up to 85%).
  2. Bacteroides vulgatus : Too High
  3. Ruminococcus gnavus : Too High
  4. Veillonella dispar : Too High
  5. Dorea longicatena : Too High
  6. Streptococcus sanguinis : Too High
  7. Erysipelatoclostridium ramosum : Too High
  8. Bifidobacterium bifidum : Too High
  9. Streptococcus marimammalium : Too High
  10. Streptococcus dentapri : Too High
  11. Streptococcus danieliae : Too High

We have agreement with published studies on the microbiome of autism for:

  1. Bifidobacterium : Too High
  2. Bacteroides vulgatus : Too High
  3. Ruminococcus gnavus : Too High


Take the following

Take none of the following

To avoid that agrees with mother’s observation (child improved)

Bottom Line

Use this video with the site to walk thru the same process. If you have a TV (which can stream YouTube) and a laptop, put the video on the TV and step thru on your laptop.

DNA aspect of Autism

This is a current state of the art reference post. My focus is on the microbiome and DNA comes into that scope. Both the microbiome and dna are inherited to various extents. Over generations the microbiome adapts to the host’s DNA – a complex balancing act between metabolites, enzymes and other chemicals. A microbiome dysfunction is conceptually easier to fix than DNA (at least at the moment). For example, variation of dopaminergic pathway genes impact both dopamine levels and potentially the microbiome[2020]

I will just give one citation for each SNP (Dna part or gene). Ideally, someone has or will create a site where a child’s DNA (from 23and me etc) could be checked for which mutations are involved.

  • truncating:
  • recessive deleterious variants:
  • synaptic plasticity, 

There are more being added every year (For current studies). A child with autism will not have all of these, but rather some combination that pushes matters over a threshold. Each combination will likely have different labs and symptoms (and different “best” treatment).

Using the microbiome approach, my hope is that we can see the net effect on the microbiome and thus have some hope for compensating.

A view from inside ASD

As I have mentioned on line, I am a high functioning ASD person. I did not start learning to speak until I has nine (9). “Erling turn off the radio” came out as “Uga turn off the olelio”. I grew up and have always lived in the Seattle WA/Vancouver BC area. People often have assumed that I was an immigrant with a significant accent or that it was acquired from my parents at home.

Wrong, my mother grew up in Calgary, Alberta knowing only English. When people met my father, they often assumed that he had a very very mild scottish accent. Needless to say, people were confused.

During my childhood (before Autism was on most family physician’s radar), I still recall very very vivid meeting of 3 kids who I suspect had more severe autism (or parents who could not cope). Two were on a home visit from a mental asylum. The last one was my age and still had not started to learn to talk (I had)….. “There but by the right parents and family physician (grace of god), could go I”. After meeting these people, the next 10-20 years were terror — because I realized how fragile a life/line that I was on.

I found my autism-compatible niche, mathematics (and later computer science). This is not surprising…

To be honest, I was good at mathematics but I wished a broader life-experience. I left high school with an Arts and Science program. I ended up being only language credits short from having both a B.Sc. and a B.A. (learning languages has always been difficult for me). With a few of my B.A. profs, I had issues because I walked down logical paths and did not pick up that those were politically incorrect to those profs.

Back to Childhood and ASD

I have been messaged on social media by parents with autistic children. To put it mildly, I feel for them (from having been inside that pit). In retrospection AND now realizing what I was dealing with, I like to make some suggestions of paths for parents to consider.

  • Puzzle solving and mathematics. This can be a challenge if you are not inclined. Thinking games are a viable start, you may need to learn:
  • The games above SHOULD NOT BE PLAYED as a computer game, but face to face with a person. You want the social interaction for your child (all be it light interaction — perhaps just light enough).
    • I was playing all of the above by 14 and still have warm positive feeling playing them against friends
  • A second area is music. My mother learnt the violin and purchased her own during the dirty 1930’s by working as a seamstress. I still have the violin. I still remember discovering it in a closet and taking to it. During my teenage years with angst, playing it was how I dealt with it. Forget talking things out with friends…. ASD remember! But I could express myself in music.
    • Be careful, it may not be any instrument. I did piano too. During the emotional teen years, it was the violin that quieted my soul. The resonance of the string instrument (actually, a viola was a strong match for me) that harmonized with my soul.
      • Be careful of non-specific “music therapy”
    • Autistic traits, resting-state connectivity, and absolute pitch in professional musicians: shared and distinct neural features [2019]
      “These results show that absolute pitch possessors score significantly higher than individuals without absolute pitch in the autism-spectrum quotient.” [2012]
      I should state that I do NOT have perfect pitch, if anything, the opposite. If your child have perfect pitch, then a career in music may be an option (especially the type where pitch and not volume is important ūüėČ )
  • Another area is dance. Organized structured movement. I remember doing square dancing in elementary school as a very pleasing experience. In later years, I did English Country Dances (Playford), Scandinavian Dances, and was active in Historic Dance Performance groups. As with music, it is not any dance form —
    • You want it structured/scripted
    • You want it to include light social interaction
    • You do not want competition (why? Simple — competition bring out social behaviors in normals that will do more harm than good)
    • I would not advise the following dance forms:
      • Jazz – lack of structure and social interaction
      • Competitive Ballroom
      • Ballet
    • Pre-screen the teacher and the class. If the teacher’s goal is to make the students ready for competition…. try elsewhere.
  • Read aloud to the child poetry with a strong rhyming and structure. Repeat and encourage the memorization of the poem
    • I was always attracted to those
    • In time, the child will likely learn it, perhaps initially, with only clapping along with the words.
    • Today, one of my favorite podcasts is The History of English Podcast. I still love reading aloud poems or books with strong pattern.
    • In high school, a friend and I would be doing required laps in Physical Education, he would recite the Canterbury Tales from memory during this required activity. There was a strong attraction to the sound of the tales

Bottom Line

Our family physician (kept him until I was in the 30’s when he retired) advice to my parents were simple, “Let him be, he will find his own path”. “Be hesitancy supportive, being too supportive will backfire/overwhelm him”.

My parents (father especially, my mother was much more willful — but fortunately issues with my older normal brother distracted her from me!) gave me a beginning and then a string of encouraging supportive teachers at High School. At university, supportive profs were rare – uni is high competitive for positions.

In elementary school I was usually a C- (or worst) student. There was one “pedantic teacher”, Ms. Schooley, in High School who really helped me structured school work and resulted in graduating with a B average. Her pedantic “now take a ruler and….” in Grade 10 was made fun of by many students…. but it really helped me. At Uni, I was spitting distance of having a 1st class average — not bad, considering that I was working 40 hrs per week and going to class! Then on to a M.Sc. and accepted for a Ph.D. but did not start (work offer tempted me away). My career is on LinkedIn – not bad for ASD. The key was to flow with my strength and avoid my weakness (and ignore social pressure of what I should be doing)

I hope this, my view from the inside, will help you and your child.

Detailed Videos on Autism Microbiome Analysis

A reader gave me permission to use data on her 3 y.o. boy with autism for a series of videos. This include a bunch of lab results: Hair Analysis, Organic Acid Test (OATS), Toxic Non-Metal Chemical Profile, Blood Work, Metabolomix.

I did the videos in three parts:

  • Review the lab reports to identify issues (abnormal values) reported by them
  • Use these issues to trace back to the bacteria species causing many of these abnormal values. From this we create a hand-picked list of bacteria of interest that are specific to this person.
The intent is to identify the dominant players

The last video looks at the different ways of getting suggestions. The key is “Do no harm” and starting with commonality across different ways.

Approximately 1 hour
57 minutes
46 minutes

Best Biome Test for Autism

Traditionally I have advocated  Thryve Inside or Biome Sight as the best bang for the buck. For a parent dealing with autism or ASD, my recommendation is:

Why? The reason is simple — there can be multiple contributing factors:

The second factor is the ability to upload to MicrobiomePrescription which gives access to machine learning and artificial intelligence of the microbiome as a whole.

One of the key factors that I seen on many microbiome providers is “the best of intentions, and the worst of executions”. Actually, not the worst of execution — rather simplistic analysis, typically created from product manager concepts and executed by software developers. There is no heavy-duty statistical/ machine learning/ artificial intelligence resource involved. The why’s is simple… those types are in very high demand by Amazon, Facebook etc with starting salaries exceeding the CEO salary of microbiome provider. Bottom line, take their conclusions with a big grain of salt – often their “gold” with be pyrite or iron sulfide (FeS2)  AKA Fool’s Gold.

New Features – Autism Children

This is an exploration post on three autism microbiome samples (all were processed on Thryve, two had their FASTQ files processed on for a second interpretation of the bacteria present). I will follow the analysis pattern that I used for myself in this post, Microbiome Outliers.

The three samples are:

  • A – Autism
  • B – Autism
  • C – Diagnosed as ASD, main characteristic is speech delay (been there, done that personally)
  • D – Diagnosed as ASD, then PANS/PANDA and possible Mast Cell issues. Unfortunately – this was done by BiomeSight and not Thryve, so not exactly comparable (See The taxonomy nightmare before Christmas‚Ķ)

Remember this is experimental, possibly 10 years ahead of conventional medicine – and will likely be subject to evolution. It is the best that I am aware of (and gladly be informed of better!). It will give three ‘samples’ to compare other autism microbiome against.

Where we get this information on

Core Supplements Suggested

There appears to be no shared pattern here. I usually look at items below 5% or above 95% (Outliers). What is an outlier for one child is not an outlier for the other child.

C – ASD/Speech
D – ASD/PANDA/Mast Cell

For D, the low DAO production could present appearing to be a Mast Cell issue (That is not an actual issue with Mast Cells, instead low DAO)

End Product Outliers

Again, we find no shared patterns.

A- Thryve
B – Thryve
C – ASD / Speech
D – ASD/PANDA/Mast Cell

We see 3 children share low Indole levels. Note:  The amino acid tryptophan is an indole derivative and the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin.[2]

KEGG Module Outliers

To put this simply, Modules are a complex of processes.

A – Thryve
B- Thryve
NONE for C – ASD/Speech
None for D either -ASD/PANDA/Mast Cell

Kegg Enzyme Outliers

This looks at enzymes produce by the bacteria. There are many, many enzymes – far more than is commonly known.

Here we have a reversal between A and B. Above, B shows few abnormalities and A shows many abnormalities. With the enzymes, B jumps ahead of A by a long distance! B has 453 items, A just 51.

There were no items that both had.

A – Thryve
B – Thryve: First Page
B – Thryve: Page 2
B – Thryve: Page 3
B – Thryve: Page 4
B – Thryve: Page 5
B – Thryve: Page 6
B – Thryve: Page 7
B – Thryve: Page 8
C – ASD/Speech
D – ASD / PANDA / Mast Cells

It is interesting to note that both children with ASD have very short lists here.

Bottom Line

Until I hit the Enzymes, I was coming to the impression that A has a jacked microbiome and B did not. That was suddenly changed when I looked at the Enzymes, B had a massive number of different shifts.

C and, who has an ASD diagnosis with speech issues being the main issue (not behavior issues etc). We see just 2,5 (versus 53 versus 451) enzyme outliers using Thryve data. This hints at enzyme production dysfunction by the microbiome as an area of interest for more severe autism.

Note: Getting suggestions from enzyme outliers or KEGG Module are features on my backlog. It will be complex to implement well.

If you look at my own latest results, Microbiome Outliers, the only thing that I had was “Rare” which could be ascribed to noise (incompleteness) of the lab results.

I did look at their results with BiomeSight processing too. They are roughly similar (we have a lot less samples – less than 10% of samples, so those results are more volatile/unreliable to compare against our sample population – Thryve is the better choice of lab solely because we have more samples uploaded. Please process their FASTQ files thru to build our sample population ).

Post coming soon a three way family comparison – Parent, ASD child, non ASD child. Drilling down across all data. It will be a long post.

Organic Acid Tests (OATS) and Autism #4

This is a continuing series of blogs looking at OATS results and autism. The goal is to filter out items that are¬†relevant¬†to autism. The series is not intended to do a full explanation of the OATS test or a single person’s result.¬†The OATS test is not autism specific¬†but general health (often IBS/FM/CFS focuses).

Remember that our knowledge is constantly changing (unfortunately most MDs knowledge of the literature is stale).

Panel A

  • 3-Hydroxybutyric
    • “Furthermore, levels of 3-hydroxybutyric¬†acid and melatonin were significantly lower [in ASD]¬†” [2020] [2018] In this case not.
  • Acetoacetic – nothing explicit [2018][2019]
  • 4-Hydroxybutyric (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) – high levels may be associated to specific DNA. [2019] [2016] [2009]
  • Ethylmalonic
    • ”¬†ethylmalonic acid (P = 0.043) were significantly elevated in individuals with ASD.” [2020] – in this case not
  • Methylsuccinic – nothing found
  • Adipic – again, this child is normal range
    • ”¬†the increase in adipic acid concentration was significantly and indirectly correlated with the severity of the deficit in socialization and communication skills in children with an ASD” [2016]
    • ”¬†Overall, no increase in the concentration of adipic acid in children with ASDs compared to TD children, however when considering vitamin B supplementation in ASD there were significantly increased level of urinary adipic acid in children with an ASD not taking vitamin B supplementation compared to supplemented children or to TD children.¬†” [2016]
    • B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children [2011] B vitamins lowers
    • Significant differences were found between the autistic children and the control group in organic acids: 2-oxoglutaric, isocitric, citric, 4-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, hippuric, adipic, suberic (all with p<0.05). [2011]
  • Suberic
    • “No significant difference were observed in suberic acid.¬†” [2016]
  • Sebacic – nothing found

Panel B

Suggested reading Supplements and Autism and Factors associated with Autism
  • Vitamin B12
    • “For example, levels of vitamins B1, B6, B12, A and D are often reported to be low in ASD children.¬†” [2020]
  • Vitamin B6
    • “For example, levels of vitamins B1, B6, B12, A and D are often reported to be low in ASD children.¬†” [2020]
  • Vitamin B5
    • “Based on semi-blinded assessment, the treatment group, compared to the non-treatment group, had significantly greater improvement in autism symptoms and developmental age. The treatment group had significantly greater increases in EPA, DHA, carnitine, and vitamins A, B2, B5, B6, B12, folic acid, and Coenzyme Q10.¬†” [2018]
  • Vitamin B2
    • “Based on semi-blinded assessment, the treatment group, compared to the non-treatment group, had significantly greater improvement in autism symptoms and developmental age. The treatment group had significantly greater increases in EPA, DHA, carnitine, and vitamins A, B2, B5, B6, B12, folic acid, and Coenzyme Q10.¬†” [2018]
  • Vitamin C
  • CoQ 10
    • “Based on semi-blinded assessment, the treatment group, compared to the non-treatment group, had significantly greater improvement in autism symptoms and developmental age. The treatment group had significantly greater increases in EPA, DHA, carnitine, and vitamins A, B2, B5, B6, B12, folic acid, and Coenzyme Q10.¬†” [2018]
  • NAC
    • “We concluded that¬†N-acetylcysteine is safe and tolerable, reduces hyperactivity and irritability and enhances social awareness in children with autism spectrum disorder.¬†” [2020]
  • Biotin
    • “Low levels of biotin, plasma glutathione, RBC SAM, plasma uridine, plasma ATP, RBC NADH, RBC NADPH, plasma sulfate (free and total), and plasma tryptophan; also high levels of oxidative stress markers and plasma glutamate.” [2011]